Internal Revenue Code:Sec. 179. Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

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Contents


Location in Internal Revenue Code


     TITLE 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
      Subtitle A - Income Taxes
       CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES
        Subchapter B - Computation of Taxable Income
         PART VI - ITEMIZED DEDUCTIONS FOR INDIVIDUALS AND CORPORATIONS
       

Statute

    Sec. 179. Election to expense certain depreciable business assets
 
    (a) Treatment as expenses
      A taxpayer may elect to treat the cost of any section 179
    property as an expense which is not chargeable to capital account.
    Any cost so treated shall be allowed as a deduction for the taxable
    year in which the section 179 property is placed in service.
    (b) Limitations
      (1) Dollar limitation
        The aggregate cost which may be taken into account under 
        subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed $25,000 
        ($125,000 in the case of taxable years beginning after 2006 and before 2011).
      (2) Reduction in limitation
        The limitation under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall
      be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount by which the cost
      of section 179 property placed in service during such taxable
      year exceeds $200,000 ($500,000 in the case of taxable years beginning after 2006 
      and before 2011).
      (3) Limitation based on income from trade or business
        (A) In general
          The amount allowed as a deduction under subsection (a) for
        any taxable year (determined after the application of
        paragraphs (1) and (2)) shall not exceed the aggregate amount
        of taxable income of the taxpayer for such taxable year which
        is derived from the active conduct by the taxpayer of any trade
        or business during such taxable year.
        (B) Carryover of disallowed deduction
          The amount allowable as a deduction under subsection (a) for
        any taxable year shall be increased by the lesser of -
            (i) the aggregate amount disallowed under subparagraph (A)
          for all prior taxable years (to the extent not previously
          allowed as a deduction by reason of this subparagraph), or
            (ii) the excess (if any) of -
              (I) the limitation of paragraphs (1) and (2) (or if
            lesser, the aggregate amount of taxable income referred to
            in subparagraph (A)), over
              (II) the amount allowable as a deduction under subsection
            (a) for such taxable year without regard to this
            subparagraph.
        (C) Computation of taxable income
          For purposes of this paragraph, taxable income derived from
        the conduct of a trade or business shall be computed without
        regard to the deduction allowable under this section.
      (4) Married individuals filing separately
        In the case of a husband and wife filing separate returns for
      the taxable year -
          (A) such individuals shall be treated as 1 taxpayer for
        purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), and
          (B) unless such individuals elect otherwise, 50 percent of
        the cost which may be taken into account under subsection (a)
        for such taxable year (before application of paragraph (3))
        shall be allocated to each such individual.
      (5) Inflation adjustments.--
          (A) In general.--In the case of any taxable year 
             beginning in a calendar year after 2007 and before 2011, 
             the $125,000 and $500,000 amounts in paragraphs (1) and 
             (2) shall each be increased by an amount equal to--
            (i) such dollar amount, multiplied by
            (ii) the cost-of-living adjustment 
                   determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar 
                   year in which the taxable year begins, by 
                   substituting `calendar year 2006' for `calendar 
                   year 1992' in subparagraph (B) thereof.
          (B) Rounding.--
             (i) Dollar limitation.--If the amount in 
               paragraph (1) as increased under subparagraph (A) 
               is not a multiple of $1,000, such amount shall be 
               rounded to the nearest multiple of $1,000.
             (ii) Phaseout amount.--If the amount in 
               paragraph (2) as increased under subparagraph (A) 
               is not a multiple of $10,000, such amount shall be 
               rounded to the nearest multiple of $10,000.
      (6) Limitation on cost taken into account for certain 
        passenger vehicles.--
         (A) In general.--The cost of any sport utility 
            vehicle for any taxable year which may be taken into 
            account under this section shall not exceed $25,000.
         (B) Sport utility vehicle.--For purposes of subparagraph (A)--
            (i) In general.--The term `sport utility vehicle' means
              any 4-wheeled vehicle--
               (I) which is primarily designed or which can be used
                 to carry passengers over public streets, roads, or highways 
                 (except any vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails),
               (II) which is not subject to section 280F, and
               (III) which is rated at not more than 14,000 pounds gross
                 vehicle weight.
            (ii) Certain vehicles excluded.--Such term does not include any
               vehicle which--
               (I) is designed to have a seating capacity of more than
                 9 persons behind the driver's seat,
               (II) is equipped with a cargo area of at least 6 feet in
                 interior length which is an open area or is designed for 
                 use as an open area but is enclosed by a cap and is not
                 readily accessible directly from the passenger compartment, 
                 or
               (III) has an integral enclosure, fully enclosing the driver
                 compartment and load carrying device, does not have 
                 seating rearward of the driver's seat, and has no body
                 section protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading
                 edge of the windshield.
    (c) Election
      (1) In general
        An election under this section for any taxable year shall -
          (A) specify the items of section 179 property to which the
        election applies and the portion of the cost of each of such
        items which is to be taken into account under subsection (a),
        and
          (B) be made on the taxpayer's return of the tax imposed by
        this chapter for the taxable year.
      Such election shall be made in such manner as the Secretary may
      by regulations prescribe.
      (2) Election irrevocable
        Any election made under this section, and any specification
      contained in any such election, may not be revoked except with
      the consent of the Secretary.  Any such election or specification
      with respect to any taxable year beginning after 2002 and 
      before 2011 may be revoked by the taxpayer with respect to any property, 
      and such revocation, once made, shall be irrevocable.
    (d) Definitions and special rules
      (1) Section 179 property.--For purposes of this section, 
        the term `section 179 property' means property--
          (A) which is--
              (i) tangible property (to which section 168 
                  applies), or
              (ii) computer software (as defined in 
                   section 197(e)(3)(B)) which is described in 
                   section 197(e)(3)(A)(i), to which section 167 
                   applies, and which is placed in service in a 
                   taxable year beginning after 2002 and before 2011,
          (B) which is section 1245 property (as defined in 
              section 1245(a)(3)), and
          (C) which is acquired by purchase for use in the 
              active conduct of a trade or business.
        Such term shall not include any property described in section 
        50(b) and shall not include air conditioning or heating 
        units.
      (2) Purchase defined
        For purposes of paragraph (1), the term ''purchase'' means any
      acquisition of property, but only if -
          (A) the property is not acquired from a person whose
        relationship to the person acquiring it would result in the
        disallowance of losses under section 267 or 707(b) (but, in
        applying section 267(b) and (c) for purposes of this section,
        paragraph (4) of section 267(c) shall be treated as providing
        that the family of an individual shall include only his spouse,
        ancestors, and lineal descendants),
          (B) the property is not acquired by one component member of a
        controlled group from another component member of the same
        controlled group, and
          (C) the basis of the property in the hands of the person
        acquiring it is not determined -
            (i) in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis
          of such property in the hands of the person from whom
          acquired, or
            (ii) under section 1014(a) (relating to property acquired
          from a decedent).
      (3) Cost
        For purposes of this section, the cost of property does not
      include so much of the basis of such property as is determined by
      reference to the basis of other property held at any time by the
      person acquiring such property.
      (4) Section not to apply to estates and trusts
        This section shall not apply to estates and trusts.
      (5) Section not to apply to certain noncorporate lessors
        This section shall not apply to any section 179 property which
      is purchased by a person who is not a corporation and with
      respect to which such person is the lessor unless -
          (A) the property subject to the lease has been manufactured
        or produced by the lessor, or
          (B) the term of the lease (taking into account options to
        renew) is less than 50 percent of the class life of the
        property (as defined in section 168(i)(1)), and for the period
        consisting of the first 12 months after the date on which the
        property is transferred to the lessee the sum of the deductions
        with respect to such property which are allowable to the lessor
        solely by reason of section 162 (other than rents and
        reimbursed amounts with respect to such property) exceeds 15
        percent of the rental income produced by such property.
      (6) Dollar limitation of controlled group
        For purposes of subsection (b) of this section -
          (A) all component members of a controlled group shall be
        treated as one taxpayer, and
          (B) the Secretary shall apportion the dollar limitation
        contained in subsection (b)(1) among the component members of
        such controlled group in such manner as he shall by regulations
        prescribe.
      (7) Controlled group defined
        For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (6), the term ''controlled
      group'' has the meaning assigned to it by section 1563(a), except
      that, for such purposes, the phrase ''more than 50 percent''
      shall be substituted for the phrase ''at least 80 percent'' each
      place it appears in section 1563(a)(1).
      (8) Treatment of partnerships and S corporations
        In the case of a partnership, the limitations of subsection (b)
      shall apply with respect to the partnership and with respect to
      each partner.  A similar rule shall apply in the case of an S
      corporation and its shareholders.
      (9) Coordination with section 38
        No credit shall be allowed under section 38 with respect to any
      amount for which a deduction is allowed under subsection (a).
      (10) Recapture in certain cases
        The Secretary shall, by regulations, provide for recapturing
      the benefit under any deduction allowable under subsection (a)
      with respect to any property which is not used predominantly in a
      trade or business at any time.
 

Sources

    (Added Pub. L. 85-866, title II, Sec. 204(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72
    Stat. 1679; amended Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 13(c)(2), Oct. 16, 1962,
    76 Stat. 1034; Pub. L. 91-172, title IV, Sec. 401(f), Dec. 30,
    1969, 83 Stat. 603; Pub. L. 94-455, title II, Sec. 213(a), title
    XIX, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1547, 1834; Pub.
    L. 97-34, title II, Sec. 202(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 219; Pub.
    L. 97-354, Sec. 3(f), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1689; Pub. L. 97-448,
    title I, Sec. 102(aa), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2369; Pub. L.
    98-369, div.  A, title I, Sec. 13, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 505;
    Pub. L. 99-514, title II, Sec. 201(d)(3), 202, Oct. 22, 1986, 100
    Stat. 2139, 2142; Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1002(a)(19),
    (b)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3356, 3357; Pub. L. 101-508, title
    XI, Sec. 11813(b)(11), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388-554; Pub. L.
    103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13116(a), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 432;
    Pub. L. 104-188, title I, Sec. 1111(a), 1702(h)(10), (19), Aug. 20,
    1996, 110 Stat. 1758, 1874.)
 

Miscellaneous

                                 AMENDMENTS
     
2007 - PL 110-28
SEC. 8212. EXTENSION AND INCREASE OF EXPENSING FOR SMALL BUSINESS.
    (a) Extension.--Subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), (b)(5), (c)(2), and 
(d)(1)(A)(ii) of section 179 <<NOTE: 26 USC 179.>>  (relating to 
election to expense certain depreciable business assets) are each 
amended by striking ``2010'' and inserting ``2011''.
    (b) Increase in Limitations.--Subsection (b) of section 179 is 
amended--
            (1) by striking ``$100,000 in the case of taxable years 
        beginning after 2002'' in paragraph (1) and inserting ``$125,000 
        in the case of taxable years beginning after 2006'', and
            (2) by striking ``$400,000 in the case of taxable years 
        beginning after 2002'' in paragraph (2) and inserting ``$500,000 
        in the case of taxable years beginning after 2006''.
    (c) Inflation Adjustment.--Subparagraph (A) of section 179(b)(5) is 
amended--
            (1) by striking ``2003'' and inserting ``2007'',
            (2) by striking ``$100,000 and $400,000'' and inserting 
        ``$125,000 and $500,000'', and
            (3) by striking ``2002'' in clause (ii) and inserting 
        ``2006''.

2006 - Pub.L. 109-222:
     SEC. 101. INCREASED EXPENSING FOR SMALL BUSINESS.
     Subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), (b)(5), (c)(2), and (d)(1)(A)(ii) of 
     section 179 (relating to <<NOTE: 26 USC 179.>> election to expense 
     certain depreciable business assets) are each amended by striking 
     ``2008'' and inserting ``2010''.

     2004 - Pub.L. 108-357, Sec 910.  Section 179(b) (relating to
     limitations) is amended by adding at the end the following new
     paragraph: "(6) Limitation on cost taken into account for certain 
     passenger vehicles...".
     Effective Date.--The <<NOTE: 26 USC 179 note.>> amendment made 
     by this section shall apply to property placed in service after 
     the date of the enactment of this Act.
      2004 - Subsec.201,Pub.L.108-357,amended Sec.179 to strike
      "2006" and insert "2008".
      2003 - Pub. L. 108-027, Section 202, amended the following:
       Subsection (b)(1) Dollar Limitation, inserted at the end 
       "($100,000 in the case of taxable years beginning after 2002 
       and before 2006)"; Subsection (b)(2) Increase in Qualifying 
       Investment at Which Phaseout Begins.-- by inserting "($400,000 
       in the case of taxable years beginning after 2002 and before 2006)";
       Subsection (d)(1) by replacing entire subsection; Subsection (b)(5) 
       by adding this new paragraph "Inflation adjustments".  
       Effective date - these amendments shall apply to taxable years beginning
       after December 31, 2002.

      1996 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1111(a), reenacted
    heading without change and amended text generally.  Prior to
    amendment, text read as follows: ''The aggregate cost which may be
    taken into account under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall
    not exceed $17,500.''
      Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1702(h)(10), struck out
    ''in'' before ''a trade or business''.
      Pub. L. 104-188, Sec. 1702(h)(19), inserted at end ''Such term
    shall not include any property described in section 50(b) and shall
    not include air conditioning or heating units.''
      1993 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103-66 substituted ''$17,500'' for
    ''$10,000''.
      1990 - Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11813(b)(11)(A),
    substituted ''section 1245 property (as defined in section
    1245(a)(3))'' for ''section 38 property''.
      Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 101-508, Sec. 11813(b)(11)(B), amended
    par. (5) generally.  Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows:
    ''This section shall not apply to any section 179 property
    purchased by any person described in section 46(e)(3) unless the
    credit under section 38 is allowable with respect to such person
    for such property (determined without regard to this section).''
      1988 - Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1002(b)(1), amended
    par. (3) generally.  Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows:
      ''(A) In general. - The aggregate cost of section 179 property
    taken into account under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall
    not exceed the aggregate amount of taxable income of the taxpayer
    for such taxable year which is derived from the active conduct by
    the taxpayer of any trade or business during such taxable year.
      ''(B) Carryover of unused cost. - The amount of any cost which
    (but for subparagraph (A)) would have been allowed as a deduction
    under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall be carried to the
    succeeding taxable year and added to the amount allowable as a
    deduction under subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year.
      ''(C) Computation of taxable income. - For purposes of this
    paragraph, taxable income derived from the conduct of a trade or
    business shall be computed without regard to the cost of any
    section 179 property.''
      Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1002(a)(19), substituted
    ''tangible property (to which section 168 applies)'' for ''recovery
    property''.
      1986 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 202(a), in amending
    subsec. (b) generally, substituted ''Limitations'' for ''Dollar
    limitation'' in heading, in par. (1) substituted as heading
    ''Dollar limitation'' for ''In general'' and in text ''shall not
    exceed $10,000'' for ''shall not exceed the following applicable
    amount:'' and a table specifying amounts for specific years, added
    pars. (2) to (4), and struck out former par. (2) which read as
    follows: ''In the case of a husband and wife filing separate
    returns for a taxable year, the applicable amount under paragraph
    (1) shall be equal to 50 percent of the amount otherwise determined
    under paragraph (1).''
      Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 202(b), inserted ''in the
    active conduct of''.
      Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 201(d)(3), substituted
    ''Treatment of'' for ''Dollar limitation in case of'' in heading
    and amended text generally.  Prior to amendment, text read as
    follows: ''In the case of a partnership, the dollar limitation
    contained in subsection (b)(1) shall apply with respect to the
    partnership and with respect to each partner.  A similar rule shall
    apply in the case of an S corporation and its shareholders.''
      Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 202(c), struck out ''before
    the close of the second taxable year following the taxable year in
    which it is placed in service by the taxpayer'' after ''at any
    time''.
      1984 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-369 amended table by dropping
    items setting applicable amounts of $0 for 1981 and $5,000 for
    1982, substituting an applicable amount of $5,000 for 1983, 1984,
    1985, 1986, and 1987 for former table items which had set
    applicable amounts of $5,000 for 1983, $7,500 for 1984, $7,500 for
    1985, and $10,000 for 1986 or thereafter, and added items setting
    applicable amounts of $7,500 for 1988 or 1989, and $10,000 for 1990
    or thereafter.
      1983 - Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 97-448 added par. (10).
      1982 - Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 97-354 substituted ''partnerships
    and S corporations'' for ''partnerships'' in heading, and inserted
    ''A similar rule shall apply in the case of an S corporation and
    its shareholders.''
      1981 - Pub. L. 97-34 amended section generally, changing its
    content from provisions that formerly made available an additional
    first-year depreciation allowance for small businesses to
    provisions allowing a taxpayer to elect to treat the cost of
    section 179 property as an expense which is not chargeable to
    capital account, with any cost so treated to be allowed as a
    deduction for the taxable year in which the section 179 property is
    placed in service.
      1976 - Subsecs. (c)(1), (2), (d)(6)(B). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec.
    1906(b)(13)(A), struck out ''or his delegate'' after ''Secretary''.
      Subsec. (d)(8), (9). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 213(a), added par. (8)
    and redesignated former par. (8) as par. (9).
      Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94-455, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out ''or
    his delegate'' after ''Secretary''.
      1969 - Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91-172 substituted reference to
    component members of a controlled group for reference to members of
    an affiliated group in pars. (2)(B) and (b), and substituted
    definition of controlled group for definition of affiliated group
    in par. (7).
      1962 - Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 13(c)(2)(A),
    substituted ''section 167(h)'' for ''section 167(g)''.
      Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 87-834, Sec. 13(c)(2)(B), substituted
    ''section 167(g)'' for ''section 167(f)''.


                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2007 AMENDMENT
2007 - PL 110-28
SEC. 8212. EXTENSION AND INCREASE OF EXPENSING FOR SMALL BUSINESS.
    (d) <<NOTE: 26 USC 179 note.>>  Effective Date.--The amendments made 
by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 
31, 2006.

                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Section 1111(b) of Pub. L. 104-188 provided that: ''The amendment
    made by subsection (a) (amending this section) shall apply to
    taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.''
      Amendment by section 1702(h)(10), (19) of Pub. L. 104-188
    effective, except as otherwise expressly provided, as if included
    in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, Pub. L.
    101-508, title XI, to which such amendment relates, see section
    1702(i) of Pub. L. 104-188, set out as a note under section 38 of
    this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT
      Section 13116(b) of Pub. L. 103-66 provided that: ''The amendment
    made by subsection (a) (amending this section) shall apply to
    taxable years beginning after December 31, 1992.''
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 101-508 applicable to property placed in
    service after Dec. 31, 1990, but not applicable to any transition
    property (as defined in section 49(e) of this title), any property
    with respect to which qualified progress expenditures were
    previously taken into account under section 46(d) of this title,
    and any property described in section 46(b)(2)(C) of this title, as
    such sections were in effect on Nov. 4, 1990, see section 11813(c)
    of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note under section 29 of this
    title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise
    provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of
    1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment relates, see section
    1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of
    this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by section 201(d)(3) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to
    property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years
    ending after such date, with exceptions, see sections 203 and 204
    of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 168 of this
    title.
      Amendment by section 201(d)(3) of Pub. L. 99-514 not applicable
    to any property placed in service before Jan. 1, 1994, if such
    property placed in service as part of specified rehabilitations,
    and not applicable to certain additional rehabilitations, see
    section 251(d)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under
    section 46 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years ending
    after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 18(a) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out
    as a note under section 48 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 97-448 effective, except as otherwise
    provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the
    Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-34, to which such
    amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97-448, set out as a
    note under section 1 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1982 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 97-354 applicable to taxable years beginning
    after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97-354, set out as
    an Effective Date note under section 1361 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1981 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 97-34 applicable to property placed in
    service after Dec. 31, 1980, in taxable years ending after that
    date, see section 209(a) of Pub. L. 97-34, set out as an Effective
    Date note under section 168 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by section 213(a) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable in the
    case of partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975,
    see section 213(f) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as an Effective Date
    note under section 709 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1969 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 91-172 applicable with respect to taxable
    years ending on or after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 401(h)(3) of
    Pub. L. 91-172, set out as a note under section 1561 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 87-834 applicable to taxable years beginning
    after Dec. 31, 1961, and ending after Oct. 16, 1962, see section
    13(g) of Pub. L. 87-834, set out as an Effective Date note under
    section 1245 of this title.
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section 204(c) of Pub. L. 85-866 provided that: ''The amendments
    made by this section (enacting this section) shall apply with
    respect to taxable years ending after June 30, 1958.''
                             SAVINGS PROVISION
      For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101-508 be
    construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring,
    property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit
    taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of
    determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5,
    1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101-508, set out as a note
    under section 29 of this title.
 

References

                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in sections 30, 42, 142, 179A, 263,
    280F, 1245, 1397A, 1397D, 1400B, 1400F, 1400J of this title.
 

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